Accountable Care Organisation (ACO). An ACO involves collaboration between providers in an area working under a capitated budget and focused on the health of the population. This working arrangement can create an incentive to invest in prevention and services outside hospitals to reduce the use of expensive specialist care. Some patient groups and thinktanks are concerned that ACOs could lead to privatisation of the NHS. NHS England released draft contracts for ACOs in 2017. It announced that it would consult on ACOs in early 2018 but has not yet given a date.
Capitated budgets are calculated on the basis of population groups. The budget is worked out by paying the provider or group of providers a set amount per patient to cover all the treatment they require.
Clinical commissioning group (CCG). There are 290 CCGs across England set-up in 2013 to commission (plan and buy) health services for their local area. The City and Hackney CCG is responsible for commissioning health services for the residents of Hackney and the City of London.
Co-production: designing, reshaping or delivering services in equal partnership with the people who use them in order to create better services and outcomes. Healthwatch Hackney and Healthwatch City partnered with local people to developed Co-production Charter for Health and Social Care in Hackney and City that has been agreed by all integrated commissioning partners.
Commissioner: a manager in the NHS or a council who oversees the day-to-day process of commissioning services.
Commissioning: the process of ensuring health and care services are provided so they meet the population’s needs. Includes assessing population needs, prioritising outcomes, planning services, buying products and services, and overseeing service providers.
Devolution involves the formal transfer of a power and the associated duties, responsibilities and resources from a centralised public authority (e.g. NHS England or central government) to a local area.
Five year forward view (5YFV) sets out a vision for improving health and wellbeing outcomes through new care models by financial year 2020/21. This planning document was produced by NHS England in 2014 and is available here.
Health and Wellbeing Board (HWB): a statutory committee of a local authority which leads and advises on work to improve health and reduce health inequalities among the local population.
Integrated care: better coordinated, joined-up and continuous care that aims to create a better patient experience.
Integrated commissioning: the pooling of local authority and CCG budgets for joint commissioning of health, social care and public health services.
Integration involves bringing together or joining things up. In this context, it means bringing health and care services closer together so they are streamlined and coordinated.
Self-care or self-management encourages people with health or social care needs to stay well, learn about their condition and support needs, and remain in control of their own health.
Single point of coordination (SPOC): Ensuring all health and social care services within a care system are linked in and coordinated from the first point of entry.
Sustainability and transformation plan (STP): In 2015, NHS England tasked 44 areas across the country with developing a sustainability and transformation plan (STP). This plan needed to show how the local area would deliver the Five Year Forward View of improved health outcomes, new care models and financial sustainability by 2020/21. The north east London STP is available here. Some areas also call these sustainability and transformation 'partnerships'.
Transformation in this context means changing or redesigning services or the way health and care organisations work to improve residents’ health and wellbeing outcomes.